An Alternate Buddha Date

A 14th-century Tibetan painting on cloth of Bhaisajyaguru, or the Medicine Buddha, who is typically depicted with blue skin and holding an apothecary’s gallipot.Credit…Medicine Buddha (Thangka), circa 14th century, pigment on cloth, Tibet, Kate S. Buckingham Fund/Bridgeman Images

Note: I posted this to my old vediculture Yahoo group back in 1999, titled as the Vedic Buddha Date. As this website serves as a depository of the past 26 years of my work, some of it may have dated informationn, missing data etc. This article, in particular, has been used as a source by several scholars who found it credible. It therefore represents a unique contribution to the study of Buddha and the Buddhist historical timeline.


Below I have compiled a quick overview from the writings of Prof Prasad Gokhale from the University of New Brunswick, Canada, on the subject of the Vedic Date for Lord Buddha’s appearance. Also note that the British date of 800 AD for Adi Shankaracharya is incorrect as is the date for Chanakya Pandit, Chandragupta Maurya and the Gupta dynasty. Sincerely, Vrin Parker


Two major sects of Vaidik Dharma, namely, that of Jaina and Buddha (1800 B.C.), rose and assumed a large following during this period. One of the greatest philosophers in Hindu history, and perhaps in world history, Aadi Shankaracharya also flourished in this era (500 B.C.).The rise of Arya Chanakya and Chandragupta of Maurya dynasty (1530 B.C.), and the historical evidence to the golden age of the Hindus under the umbrella of the Gupta dynasty (325 B.C.) also occured during this period.. Evidence testifies that Buddha and Aadi Shankara lived 1800 B.C. and 500 B.C respectively.

The “golden age” in India was ushered with the rise of the Gupta dynasty. It was Chandragupta of the Guptas, NOT THE MAURYAS, who reigned over the Indian empire around 325 B.C., a time when Macedonian Alexander had invaded India.The currently established chronology of India initiates with the invasion of the so-called aryan race in 1500 B.C., which ruthlessly and forcefully subdued the original inhabitants of the land, imposing upon them a alien language and culture.


See larger Image of the Isapur Buddha below

The invading hordes settled down on the banks of river Sindhu (Indus), and within few centuries (1200 B.C.), complied the Veda. Subsequently, the Brahmanas, Samhitas, Puranas and numerous other scriptures were composed. Where does the Ramayan and Mahabharat fit in? Some say that the Ramayan follows Mahabharat and some opine otherwise.

In all this anarchy of Indian histography, the probable date of Mahabharat ranges between 1000 B.C.to 300 B.C.The identification of Sandrocottus (325 B.C.) of the Greeks with Chandragupta Maurya by Sir Jones was considered to the “sheet anchor” and based on this assumption, a chronology of Indian history was constructed. THE DATE WHEN GAUTAMA BUDDHA PROSPERED WAS CALCULATED FROM THIS SHEET ANCHOR TO BE AROUND 500 BC, and the dateline of Aadi Shankara was put in 800 A.D.

The Gupta Dynasty, whose reign ushered a Golden Age in India, were placed in the 4th century A.D.Examination of the Rgved, Puraan and other texts provide dates of events that took Indian history, at times, back to thousands of years. However, since these dates contradicted the prevalent views of Europeans historians, the saunskrut texts were academically attacked in an attempt to disprove the authenticity of the annals.

For example, the European Indologist Maxmuller, tried the interpret the astronomical evidences to prove that the observations recorded in the Hindu scriptures are imaginary, “pious frauds” created by the cunning Brahmanas. Numerous references which were anachronous to the particular time-frames were either considered as unauthentic and unreliable.

No attempt was made to recheck and reevaluate the presumptions and basis on which the chronological structure was built……..Sage Buddha is also considered as yet another avataar, and the time he prospered is determined below. However, to determine the age when Buddha flourished requires finding dates of some other events in the course of history.

The datelines of Maurya Chandragupta and his grandson, Maurya Ashoka, are considered in the following two sections.14. Gautam Buddha —————– Modern history tends to inform readers that Gautama was born around 550 B.C. and died after about 80 years. Pandit Kota Venkatachalam, writes in his book “The Age of Buddha, Milinda and King Amtiyoka and Yuga Purana” that, “Due to his wrong identification of Maurya Chandragupta as the contemporary of Alexander, the history of Bharat has been shifted by 12 centuries (and) it is the Chandragupta of the Gupta dynasty who belongs to 327-320 B.C.”

Thus, due to the confusion in pinpointing properly the “sheet anchor” of Indian history, Lord Buddha’s antiquity has been underestimated by about 1200 years. Now that Chandragupta Maurya reigned in 1550 B.C. (instead of 325 B.C.), the time when the latter flourished can be calculation to be around 1850 B.C. (instead of 550 B.C.).

All the Puranas and another historical compilation titled Kaliyug- rajavruttanta, profess to describe the Magadha royal dynasties starting from the Bruhadratha to the Andhra lineages, after which the Magadha empire disintegrated. It is known from the Bhagavad Puraan that Buddha was 23rd in the Ikshwaku lineage. However, the list of Ikshwaku kings are not available. In order to determine the date of Siddharta (Buddha), it is necessary to find the contemporary kings in the Magadha genealogy.

According to different accounts, the Buddha was a contemporary of Kshemajita, Bindusar and Ajatashatru, the 31st-33rd kings of the Shishunaga dynasty. The Buddha was 72 years old when the coronation of Ajatashatru took place, that is in 1814 B.C. Going backwards, the date of Buddha’s birth becomes 1887 B.C. Since he lived for 80 years, the Buddha must have left the body in 1807 B.C.

This date can also be confirmed by purely referring to astronomical calculations, and what is correctly and exactly obtained as the date for Buddha’s nirvana is 27-3-1807 (Sathe, Age of Buddha). This date also explains the possibility of the existence of Buddhism in the second millennium B.C., as was rejected earlier.

The astronomical computations of the indologist-astronomer Swami Sakhyananda suggests that the Buddha belonged to the Kruttika period, i.e., in between 2621-1661 B.C. In his book “Chronology of Ancient Bharat” (Part4.Chap2), Prof. K.Srinivasaraghavan states the approximate time of Buddha to be 2259 years after the Bharata War (3138 B.C.). which turns out to be 1880 B.C.

Thyagaraja Iyer in his book “Indian Architecture” observes,” Here lies Indian Sramanacharya from Bodh Gaya, a Shakya monk taken to Greece by his Greek pupils and the tomb marks his death about 1000 B.C.” If the Buddhist monk went to Greece in 1000 B.C., then the Buddha must have lived at least a few centuries earlier. Somayajulu places Chandragupta Maurya in the 14th century B.C (ref: Dates in Ancient History of India).

This puts the Buddha three centuries earlier, i.e., in the 17th century B.C. A brief chronology of the events in Buddha’s life:Born in 1887 B.C., Renunciation in 1858 B.C., Penance during 1858-52 B.C and Death in 1807 B.C.There are various other calculations and evidences which point to the 1800 B.C. date. However, it is believed that, at least for this article, the presentation made above suffices to convince and ascertain the date of Buddha.

Adi Shankaracharya with Disciples painted by Rajiv Varma 1904
Screencap from 2002 Version of this article

By 2020 India to be ‘Unrivalled Power’ – 2005 US Intel Report

16 year old Report: US Intel Geopolitical and Economic Assessment of India in the year 2020. “The global community will have to deal with the military, political and economic dimensions of the rise of China and India…” US National Intelligence Council, Feb 2005 Forecast on India in the year 2020.

“The US NIC (National Intelligence Council) also forecast that India, China and Russia could form a de facto geo-strategic alliance in an attempt to counter-balance US and western influence.” (No Indian leader can even consider such repartee with China  now = Covid – an undeniable multi-level impact)

“India will be the unrivalled regional power with a large military — including naval and nuclear capabilities — and a dynamic and growing economy,” National Intelligence Council, NIC which represents 15 spy agencies of the US including the CIA.

Connect the Dots. India has endured the impacts of asymmetrical warfare longer than any other nation in the history of the world. Wake Up Bharatiyas! Throw off your Naivety! These Intel Agency Forecasts are not developed for mere scholarly pursuits. They are in fact used as templates designed to effect the outcome of the targeted nation.

The decades of ‘ death by a thousand cuts’ strategy against India was squashed by the election of PM Narendra Modi. Being inter-dependent, both the endless Terror attacks and the former Sonia Gandhi – Singh Administration ceased to function with the election of Modi.

Representing the first truly indigenous geo-political power to rise up in over 500 years; India, is the 6th greatest power in the world today; a near match to the West and it’s western oriented subsidiaries.

Have no doubt about it, your nation is currently being confronted by the most diabolical phase in a centuries-long campaign to obliterate the World’s last remaining and functioning indigenous civilization. Vedic civilization is undoubtedly your heritage yet it is the legacy for all Mankind.

Burning your pilgrims in trains, machine gun attacks on your Parliament, bombing massacres bat temples, mosques and churches all failed to derail you! Your Faith was never shaken! Now, your collective faith and your traditions, your cultures, your spiritual and indigenous political leaders has been shaken to the core.

Unlike any other civilization you have maintained your direct connectivity to the ancestors. Long before the pyramids arose in the sands of Egypt, the people of India offered oblations to the Sun, hands uplifted with the Sacred Water of the Ganges.

As the World’s last remaining Indigenous Civilization you represent the last hope for Humanity! Do Not Be Fooled! Ignore the Narrative designed to destroy your civilization once and for all. Hari Om! Satyameva Jayate!

PS Even if your Native leaders erred in judgement, only the foolish can doubt their intentions for a prosperous, vibrant India. The current Indian Administration has an undeniable track record of progressive policies that simultaneously uplifted the lives of millions while reviving the ancient indigenous traditions. The alternative is a return to dysfunctionality, poverty and lives of mundane mediocrity and base consumerism.

START
Washington, February 24, 2005: India will emerge as an “unrivalled” regional power with large military capabilities in the next 15 years but its “rising ambition” would further strain its relations with China besides complicating ties with Russia and Japan, America’s National Intelligence Council has said in a report.

“India will be the unrivalled regional power with a large military — including naval and nuclear capabilities — and a dynamic and growing economy,” the NIC, which represents 15 spy agencies of the US including the CIA, has said in its global trends forecast for 15 years.

“The size of its population — 1.2 billion by 2015 — and its technologically driven economic growth virtually dictate that India will be a rising regional power,” it said. However, the report said that the unevenness of its internal economic growth, with a growing gap between rich and poor, and serious questions about the fractious nature of its politics, all cast doubt on how powerful India will be by 2015

“Whatever its degree of power, India’s rising ambition will further strain its relations with China, as well as complicate its ties with Russia, Japan and the West — and continue its nuclear standoff with Pakistan,” it said. Moreover, other South Asian states — Bangladesh, Sri Lanka and Nepal — will be drawn closer to and more dependent on India and its economy. Afghanistan will likely remain a weak and destabilising force in the region and the world.

Wary of China, India will look increasingly to the West, but its need for oil and desire to balance Arab ties to Pakistan will lead to strengthened ties to persian Gulf states as well. The NIC also forecast that India, China and Russia could form a de facto geo-strategic alliance in an attempt to counter-balance US and western influence.

Noting that the interests of Russia, China and India, as well as Iran and Turkey will intersect in central Asia, it said the states of that region will attempt to balance those powers as well as keep the US and the West engaged to prevent their domination by an outside power.

On other fronts, it said Indian democracy will remain strong, albeit more factionalised by the secular-Hindu nationalist debate, growing differentials among regions and the increase in competitive party politics.

On the economic front, it said India’s economy, long repressed by the heavy hand of regulation, is likely to achieve sustained growth to the degree reforms are implemented.

High-technology companies will be the most dynamic agents and will lead the thriving service sector in four key urban centres — Mumbai, New Delhi, Bangalore and Chennai. Computer software services and customised applications will continue to expand as India strengthens economic ties to key international markets. Industries such as pharmaceuticals and agro-processing will also compete globally.

It said numerous factors provide India a competitive advantage in the global economy including the largest English-speaking population in the developing world; its education system which produces millions of scientific and technical personnel.

It also noted that India has a growing business-minded middle class eager to strengthen ties to the outside world, and the large Indian expatriate population provides strong links to key markets around the world.

However, despite the rapid growth, more than half a billion Indians will remain in dire poverty, the NIC says. Harnessing technology to improve agriculture will be India’s main challenge in alleviating poverty in 2015.

The widening Gulf between “have” and “have-not” regions and disagreements over the pace and nature of reforms will be a source of domestic strife.

Rapidly growing, poorer northern states will continue to drain resources in subsidies and social welfare benefits. Failure by India to implement its reforms would prevent it from achieving sustained growth.

AIDS will be a major problem not only in Africa but also in India, southeast Asia, several countries formerly part of the Soviet Union, and possibly China.

Among developing countries, India will remain in the forefront in developing information technology, led by the growing class of high-tech workers and entrepreneurs. Emerging Asia will be the fastest growing region, led by breakout candidates China and India, whose economies already comprise roughly one-sixth of the global gross domestic product.

The global community will have to deal with the military, political and economic dimensions of the rise of China and India and the continued decline of Russia. END

Dara Shikoh – Vedic Muslim Prince & True Heir to the Moghul Throne of India

Dara Shikoh Receiving the Prasad of Sri Sri Radha Keshav Rai after presenting a carved railing for the Keshva Rai Temple at Mathura. Later, his younger brother and usuper of the Moghul Throne, Aurangzeb ordered (1666 AD) the demolition of the temple.

Did you know that a Mughal Muslim Prince and Heir-Apparent to the throne of the Mughal Indian Empire completed the translation of 50 Upanishads from its original Sanskrit into Persian? His name was Dara Shikoh and he accomplished all of this before his betrayal and death at the age of 44. His translations are called ‘Sirr-e-Akbar’ or ‘The Greatest Mystery’. This Mughal Prince boldly proclaimed that the work referred to in the Qur’an as the “Kitab al-maknun” or ‘The Hidden Book’, is none other than the ‘Vedic Upanishads’. His most famous work, ‘Majma-ul-Bahrain’ or ‘The Confluence of the Two Seas’ was devoted to the mystical and pluralistic affinities between Islamic and Vedic religions and traditions. 

Dara Shikoh translating the Upanishads in the company of Pandits and Sanyasis (1657 AD).

His Highness, The Imperial Prince (Shahzada) Dara Shikoh (Persian: دارا شكوه ) (full name and royal title Padshahzada-i-Buzurg Martaba, Jalal ul-Kadir, Sultan Muhammad Dara Shikoh, Shah-i-Buland Iqbal was born on March 20, 1615  and died at 44 years of age on August 30, 1659. 

He was the eldest son and heir apparent of the Mughal Emperor of India Shah Jahan and his wife Mumtaz Mahal. His name, in the Persian, means ‘Darius the Magnificent’. 

Though favoured as the successor by his father and his sister Princess Jahanara Begum Sahib, he was defeated and executed by his younger brother Prince Muhiuddin later to be known as the infamous Emperor Aurangzeb, iconoclast and wrathful agent of destruction of countless Hindu temples and pillager of Krishna’s holy city of Vrindavan. 

Dara Shikoh interacting with Sufi Saints

 The two brothers engaged in a brutal struggle for the imperial throne of the vast Mughal Indian Empire. The course of the history of the Indian subcontinent, had Dara prevailed over Aurangzeb, has been a matter of some conjecture among historians. 

Yet clearly, if this noble enlightened prince had become the Emperor of India the world today would see a united India of an enlightened egalitarianism based upon a unified diversity of faiths and religious harmony.

Dara Shikoh meeting with a Group of Christian Fathers to Learn about the Holy Bible & Teachings of Isha – Lord Jesus Christ

Dara Shikoh is widely renowned as an enlightened paragon of the harmonious coexistence between Islam and the Vedic traditions of India. He was an erudite champion of mystical religious exploration. He was a poet, a historian and a prolific writer.He believed in the syncretic cultural interaction among people of all faiths. 

If Dara Shikoh had become Emperor, then beautiful Kashmir would today be the epicenter of an effervescent wellspring of learning and culture rather than the potential trigger for nuclear war it is today.

As usual this made him a heretic in the eyes of his fanatic brother Aurangzeb and his Islamist supremacist advisors. He was accused of eccentricity, blasphemy and cast as a mentally unstable person. 

Dara Shikoh with Mian Mir and Mullah Shah Badakhshi

Dara was a follower of Lahore’s famous Qadiri Sufi saint Hazrat Mian Mir, whom he was introduced to by Mullah Shah Badakhshi (Mian Mir’s spiritual disciple and successor) and who was so widely respected among all communities that he was invited by the Sikhs to lay the foundation stone of Sikhism’s most holy site, the Golden Temple in Amritsar, Punjab. Dara also maintained a close friendship with the seventh Sikh Guru, Guru Har Rai. 

Dara devoted much effort towards finding a common mystical foundation between Islam and Hinduism. 

A page from Majma-ul-Bahrain ‘The Confluence of Two Seas” (a book on commonalities between the Quran and the Upanishads by Muhammad Dara Sikoh) in the manuscripts collection at the Portrait Gallery of Victoria memorialCalcutta.

Towards this goal he completed the translation of 50 Upanishads from its original Sanskrit into Persian in 1657. His translations are often called Sirr-e-Akbar (The Greatest Mystery), where he states boldly that the work referred to in the Qur’an as the “Kitab al-maknun” or the hidden book, is none other than the Vedic Upanishads. His most famous work, ‘Majma-ul-Bahrain’ or ‘The Confluence of the Two Seas’ was devoted to the mystical and pluralistic affinities between Islamic and Vedic thought and traditions. 

The library established by Dara Shikoh still exists to this very day. Located on the grounds of Indraprastha University, Kashmiri Gate, Delhi, it is now a museum. 

During his 2010 Visit to Humayan’s Tomb Obama asked about Dara Shikoh, the eldest son of Shah Jahan who was murdered on brother Aurangzeb’s orders and buried in an unmarked grave on the premises. Dara Shikoh is believed to have had an influence on the 1800s era American Transcendentalists Movement.

Dara had been buried in an undisclosed location. During US President Obama’s 2010 visit to India he specifically requested information about the location of Dara Shikoh’s tomb. I will always be grateful to President Obama for clueing me towards the remarkable legacy of Dara Shikoh the Mughal Prince the rightful Emperor of Mughal India.

As the world is confronted by a cynical atheistic drive towards a Global Religious War, it is the wisdom and legacy of great saints and scholars like Dara Shikoh that provide the solution, resolution and end to all sectarian strife, racial conflict and hatred. 

THE DEVELOPMENT OF A UNIFIED DIVERSITY AMONG ALL PEOPLE OF FAITH THROUGHOUT THE WORLD IS THE ONLY GENUINE AND EFFECTIVE PATH TO A GOLDEN AGE OF UNIVERSAL PEACE AND PROSPERITY!  

Dara Shikoh’s Investigations of Vedic Literature Reinforced his Islamic Faith. He Recognized his All-Merciful Allah and Islamic Faith as part of the Same Reservoir of God’s Universal Love. Here he and his sons offer Namaz (Prayers) in the Delhi Red Fort Mosque

Humanity is indeed fortunate for the template and blueprint for Religious Harmony bequeathed to us by Dara Shikoh. As soon as we collectively abandon any and all ideas based in racial, cultural, caste, class or religious elitist concepts of superiority, only then can we collectively an easily harness and apply the Dara Shikoh solutions for World Peace.  The potential for such a development is thus readily available.


May it Be So and Soon!!! Salaam Alekhum, Shalom, Harih Om Tat Sat!

Unlike Many other Religious Minded Scholars, Dara Shikoh was a Dedicated Husband and Father. Here Dara Shikoh is featured presenting an album of miniature paintings to his wife Nadira Banu.
Khalilullah Khan reading a secret letter from Aurangzeb. Betrays Dara Shukoh in the decisive battle of Samugarh (May 1658).

Internal Betrayal by One’s Own People has been the Primary Cause of Foreign Conquest. This Fact is intentionally obscured by modern historians. It is the most potent weapon in the Arsenal of the Adversary (Kali Yuga Personified/Satan/Shaitan). Thus today it is being used as a weapon against innocent majority populations of the world; be it the ‘White Guilt’, ‘Hindu Bigot’ or the ‘Islam is Terrorism’ Narratives. Poisoning the Heart & Soul of Humanity.

From: DARA SHIKOH, A MUGHAL WHO WAS TRULY “SECULAR” by GopalaKrishnan V, Founder CEO of Money Avenues(Note: Dara died at 44 not 31)

Source: The Serpent the Eagle the Lion & the Disk

My Tribute to a Saintly Multi-Millionaire – Yes, it’s Not an Oxymoron

Even before his success in business, Arjan Vekaria had been a dedicated humanitarian. During his childhood in Africa, he was involved in several charitable campaigns. In his early days in the UK he would go door to door collecting funds for Indian orphanages.

His charitable activities extended beyond the ethnic barrier as well and thus from 1985- 87 he spearheaded the SKLPC (UK) Ethiopian Famine Relief Fund Drive. Then in 1987/88 he coordinated the Gujarat Drought Relief Fund and after the massive earthquake of 2001 he was the Chief Coordinator for the Relief and Reconstruction for Gujarat Earthquake from 2001 until 2004.

Arjan’s obvious dedication to selfless service was recognized far and wide throughout British society. He was thus appointed to many prestigious positions such as Governor of Copland Community School in 2007, Trustee of the Asian Foundation for Help (UK); Elected President of Hindu Forum of Britain in 2009 the largest umbrella body for British Hindus, Trustee and Vice President of Shree Navchetan Andhjan Man dal Kutch India, honored with the Community Personality of the Year Award by the UK Home Secretary and Minister of Justice.

In 2010 Arjan was appointed as one of 13 faith advisers by the UK Government’s Communities Secretary John Denham. Arjanji also had the distinction of being a Justice of the Peace (Magistrate) appointed by the Lord Chancellor on behalf of HM The Queen. Despite representing the world’s third largest religion with a massive and economically vibrant middle class population, Hindus have a miniscule media presence. In an effort to fill this gap, Arjan Vekaria and his brother Shashi founded Hindu Today Magazine in 2007.

Thus the world’s only Pan-Hindu monthly magazine was born. Yet, within a month of the demise of Arjan Vekaria, Hindu Today Magazine was no more; but not before making a significant impact on the history of the world. As a direct result of the publication of our Hindu Yezidi Cultural similarities, two of the world’s most ancient Civilizations were once again reunited. 

Ancient Book-Burnings: Theravadin Monks Burn Buddha’s Words in Pyre ‘Seven Elephants High’

Lord Buddha Visits Heladiva (Modern Island inaccurately named as Sri Lanka according to the indigenous Hela people of the island.)

According to the Indigenous Vedha Hela of Sri Lanka, Buddha visited the island three times. During his visit, Lord Buddha spoke to the people in their indigenous Helabasa language. These words, written on palm leaves, were preserved for centuries.

However, in the 5th Century AD, Theravadin Monks, after ‘translating’ them..’the original Helabasa texts were heaped into a pile ‘seven elephants high’ and burnt to ashes.

Here both Lord Buddha (Above Left) and Vasudeva Krishna (Above Right & Below) are both represented in the 2000 year old Mathura School of Art. This period was within the same kingdom and ruled over by the same King. Rather than conflict between the two traditions, Lord Buddha was recognized as an Avatar of Vasudeva Krishna, just as he is today by a majority of Vaishnavas and Hindus. He was thus worshipped along with Ramachandra, Narayana, Krishna and Balarama within the same original Vaishnava tradition.
See Larger Images and details at end of Article

Theravada Buddhism is a form of ‘religious’ atheism and impersonalism. It is far removed from the original teachings of the Buddha. Thus today people mistakenly assume that Buddhism has nothing to do with the devotional God-centered traditions of the ancient world’s high civilizations.

A brief survey of the contemporaneous Buddhist and Vaishnava architecture and sculpture of ancient Mathura, India is just one example confirming the true nature of original Buddhism.

Emblem of the Indigenous Hela of Heladiva

Indigenous Research Collective Hela Havula writes in Hela Origins, Hela Nation of Heladiva, “The earliest forms of Sri Lankan Indigenous Helabasa that survives today is spoken by the ‘Veddha’ Hela people. It is said in the oral tradition that the Buddha spoke Helabasa on his three separate visits to the Island. A written record of Buddha’s first discourse to the Hela in the original Helabasa text was found recently and has subsequently been published.

Newspaper report on the publication of a recently discovered record of Buddha’s first discourse to the Hela people of modern Sri Lanka. It was one of the rare original Helabasa Buddhist texts that survived destruction by the Theravadin Monks

Although some may argue otherwise, it is inconceivable to think that the Buddha would speak any other language when he specifically instructed the Dhammadutha (‘missionary’) sages to impart the Dhamma (i.e. the teachings of the Buddha) in the mother tongue of the people so they may absorb the Dhamma in its entirety.

Around the 5th century AD, a group of Buddhist monks whose intentions were to re-introduce Buddhism to the birth place of the Buddha in India (which by this time had declined) decided to translate all the old Helabasa Dhamma text into Pali (the language of the Buddha’s birth place). It is said in the oral tradition that after everything was translated into Pali; the original Helabasa texts were heaped into a pile ‘seven elephants high’ and burnt.

From this point onwards, Buddhism had to be taught in the Pali language. The Hela who knew nothing of Pali were now unable to make use of all the wisdom of Buddhism. This misguided act of burning texts was a great injustice to the Hela and a gross insult to the Buddha and his teachings.” Heladiva.net

Such a book burning is a highly indicative of an iconoclastic effort. Not only did they erase the original teachings of Lord Buddha, they replaced them with an alternate doctrine of their own invention. This becomes obvious when one tracks the historical footprints of both the original Buddha and the Theravadins.

Knowledge is power and with this one fell swoop the Theravadins obliterated the original teachings of the Buddha. Thus a vast majority of Buddha’s teachings as preserved by the indigenous Heladiva has been forever lost to history.

Native Traditionally Dressed Aristocrats of Kandy, Heladiva, modern Sri Lanka

The very name Theravada, meaning the ‘Path of the Elders‘, was designed to artificially impose an aura of authority, wisdom and learning. Thus over the centuries, the Theravadin doctrine became the entrenched and dominant form of Buddhism in Heladiva, Burma, Thailand, Laos and Cambodia.

The Theravadins carried out similar campaigns in Burma, Thailand, Laos and Cambodia. Tune in for upcoming articles highlighting these histories. The evidence proves that the ‘atheistic’ Buddha you think you know is not the Buddha of history.

Description: This red sandstone doorjamb was found dumped inside an old well in Mathura in 1913. It is a broken piece of doorjamb of some destroyed Hindu temple of the style in pre-6th century era. The doorjamb is carved on one side, flat on the other. Archaeologists studying the doorjamb noticed that the flat side has an inscription. It turned out to be Brahmi script, in a style that suggested 1st century CE or earlier. The inscription has been deciphered and it has led scholars to date it between 0-25 CE.

The inscription and artwork relates to a temple dedicated to Vasudeva (Krishna) of the Vaishnavism tradition. This inscription is one of many that have been discovered in India between 1860 and 1980 that suggest that ancient Indians were building statues and temples dedicated to Hindu deities between 2nd century BCE and 1st-century CE. Ancient inscriptions relating to Vishnu, Shiva and Shakti have been found in India.

This is a photograph from a personal copy of the book published in 1920 by w:Ramaprasad Chanda (d. 1942), titled Memoirs of the Archaeological Survey of India, No. 5.

The 1920 photographs are 2D-Art, and PD-Art-100-70 guidelines apply. The artwork and the 2-D inscription therein itself is from the 1st-century CE, by an unknown artist(s) of ancient India.

The original photographs are found as Plate XXV and XXVI, in the appendix section of the 1920 published book (pages 174-177).

Any rights I have are herewith donated to wikimedia under Creative Commons 4.0 license. Date 31 December 1920 Source Own work. Author Ms Sarah Welch

Time to Hold India’s Media Legally Accountable

“The Indian media has been clearly and repeatedly implicated as a cause of violence and mayhem. It is widely recognized for its ruthless and biased approach towards news reporting. The Indian media has also been implicitly involved in stirring up tension and fear amongst the people in a manner nearly identical to the UN Media Case. India would do well to challenge its media to create rather than destroy fundamental human values. The Indian media should be held to account for the consequences of its actions.” – Brannon Parker

Orissa in the Crossfire: Kandhamal Burning

This is an excerpt from one of my books titled, Orissa in the Crossfire: Kandhamal Burning. This is the same book that the Indian Parliamentarian and Congress Party leader Digvijaya Singh demanded be banned for allegedly being a cause of community strife. However that be, the fact that there is a direct correlation between violent mayhem and the media’s actions has been established repeatedly. I therefore call for India’s media to be held accountable for its many crimes against society. This can be done by using the Indian court system based upon the precedent of setting convictions conducted by the United Nations International Criminal Tribunal’s Rwandan Media Trial.

The trial was known as the Rwandan Media Case. These precedent-setting convictions have established the standard regarding those that abuse the power of the media and disturb and disrupt civil society. India’s mainstream media has long been at the forefront of sowing seeds of mayhem and chaos across the nation. Rather than my writings, it is the Indian media which is blatantly setting Indian society against itself. Thus such publications and journalists must be held accountable and convicted for their crimes.

The fact is anyone who reads Orissa in the Crossfire will see that I did not pit one group against another nor did I condemn any religion or ethnic group. But I did expose many crimes, criminals, mass corruption and the many conspiracies, groups and personalities that are actively engaged in a brutal campaign against India. Recently,India’s Minister of External Affairs V. K. Singh characterized the mainstream media as Presstitutes, who ignored his major international humanitarian rescue mission in Yemen. Yet this same Press attempted to accuse him of damaging the morale of the Indian Army.

V. K. Singh

The basis of this bizarre claim? The Minister had attended a Pakistan Day celebration at the Pakistani Embassy. Despite this being an annual event that the Indian Government has often attended, the media created an artificial scandal aimed at damaging the morale of India’s armed forces. This is pure sedition. It is high time the Indian judicial system tackled this destabilizing force that is traumatizing the country. Perhaps the precedent-setting UN Rwandan Media Case has applicability within the Indian court system as well. The following excerpts are from the chapter entitled “A Medium for Chaos.”  

Obfuscation: “To totally obscure with non-germane information in a verbose manner, with the intent to provide a non-answer, and provide total befuddlement.” This perfectly illustrates the modus operandi of the Indian media.

Media

India’s mediais in a league of its own. It presents itself as beholden to none. It claims itself to be the voice of reason, the conscience of the system and guardian of the public weal. Though this ideal is at the basis of a responsible media, India’s media is infamously and obviously far removed from such a role. The pattern and record speaks for itself. A graphic example would be the anti-Bihari riots in Assam. A false story detailing a Bihari’s rape of an Assamese girl led to a public response leading to much violence, injury, destruction and death. Despite the media’s role in initiating the mayhem, the obvious disconnect between the law, social welfare concerns, the people and the media, no action nor resolution was taken. The powers that be, behind the media, continued as before untouched by the law and uncaring towards the plight of a victimized people.

Media Bias

The media is clearly being used as a weapon against the RSS and affiliated Hindu organizations.  Rather than being the fourth estate of civil society, India’s media is more like a bludgeon. It decides what is relevant to its pre-scripted scenarios and cherry picks information to fit into its preordained scripts. This propaganda is then disseminated and imposed upon the public and the designed perceptions popularized as fact. India’s media has long abandoned its responsibility as a medium for information, events and facts. In a manipulative process, the Indian media trivializes the profound and sensationalizes the profane.

On a recent research visit to Govardhan in Uttar Pradesh on the last day of the Hindu holy month of Kartik, a full moon was in the sky. Thousands upon thousands  of pilgrims were circumambulating the sacred Govardhan hill. In an endless march  beginning from the predawn hours until late evening, thousands of Hindu pilgrims  circled the sacred mount. In a massive display of the living and ancient Indian culture,  people of all ages, including entire families walked bedecked in colorful clothes. The  excitement was tangible. Such a massive event inspired no mention in the media.  For the media, it was a non-event. Coming from the same media that highlights  every minor gathering of Leftist politicians and religious minority groups, such bias by the media is intentional. By constantly disenfranchising the Hindus, distorting their words and denigrating their efforts, the media is the primary cause of social chaos and political mayhem. The same media that projects itself as a voice of  concern provides the rationale for oppression.

Creek Chief Selocta (or Shelocta) was a Muscogee Creek chief who appealed to President Andrew Jackson to reduce the demands for Creek lands at the signing of the Treaty of Fort Jackson.

In America this same method was applied against the great American Indian leaders of the 1800s who struggled to defend their culture, people and lands. In every case, without fail, it was the media which provided the sensational and gruesome tales of  massacres of “innocent white women and children at the hands of the Red Savages”. The media-induced frenzy and uproar that followed led to organized lynch mobs and  groups of US soldiers bent on murder. American Indian tribes were ruthlessly  massacred, ethnically cleansed and imprisoned by the thousands. As the brutal aggression continued, the media provided the rationale within a context of law and order. By completely ignoring the injustices, the brutal acts of violence, rapes,  murders and loss of land and water rights that instigated the trouble, the media  distorted the historical underpinnings involved. With a focus on the effect and denial of the cause, the media becomes a powerful tool and weapon against a targeted group. Guns alone do not create genocide.

Ferdinand Nahimana

This conclusion was reached by the United Nations International Criminal Tribunal. In reference to the media’s complicity in the violence, the Tribunal declared, ‘Without a  firearm, machete or any physical weapon you, (Nahimana founder of Rwanda’s RTLM,  Radio TV des Milles Collines) caused the death of thousands of innocent civilians.’ The media case as it was known, was conducted by the UNICTR or the United Nations  International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda and presided over by Judge Navanetham Pillay. The historic ruling clearly delineated the responsibilities and consequential role of the media. “The power of the media to create and destroy fundamental human values comes with great responsibility. Those who control such media are accountable for its  consequences (CCCLXXXIV).”

RTLM Radio Rwanda

This important, precedent-setting landmark case has been virtually forgotten and  suppressed. For some in India, the media is the weapon of choice. The implications of the Rwanda Media Case are far-reaching and significant. Such a legal mechanism based upon this landmark Rwanda Media Case would no doubt be of great benefit to the Indian authorities, law professionals and overall socio-political climate. Freedom of  the Press does not refer to the freedom to oppress. In the landmark case, the UN  convicted three Rwandan media personalities for “genocide, incitement to genocide,  conspiracy and crimes against humanity-extermination and persecution.” The verdict is  clear and the precedent set.

The Indian media has been clearly and repeatedly implicated as a cause of violence and mayhem. It is widely recognized for its ruthless and biased approach towards news reporting. The Indian media has also been implicitly involved in stirring up tension and fear amongst the people in a manner nearly identical to the UN Media Case. India would do well to challenge its media to create rather than destroy fundamental human values. The Indian media should be held to account for the consequences of its actions. – IndiaFacts, 22 April 2015

Freedom of the Press

Mr Parker: How I Stopped Worrying & Learned to Love Life in the Plague Zone!

This is to all the 2nd hand ‘late to the party’ folks spreading Corona mania and also to help inform anyone interested.

I wanna address the sob stories and ‘the worry and the pain’ and the 2nd hand fear stories people keep pumping out related to the coronavirus.

Well you know what people, I was living in Kirkland a mere three miles away from that nursing home where the first deaths were reported. I had already given my landlord notice that I was moving out March 1 2020. Going back Hawaii.

The first death happened about 3 days before and I had all these people from Craigslist coming over and suddenly they all stopped showing up. I was focused on moving so I just assumed I’d connected with a bunch of flakes. Later I realized as soon as they realized they were going to Kirkland, the Plague Zone, I got it.

Then I started trippin out on the Chinese from China (new US immigrants), Craigslist buyers that had spent long times with me going thru my apartment as Covid was allegedly spreading like wildfire. Shameful but logical.

In fact, prior to the first deaths, the media and the various local government’s kept issuing statements shaming our local population for avoiding Chinese businesses. They kept hammering the point that Chinese-owned businesses had lost almost 30% (not sure on exact#) of they’re normal revenue…due to ‘racism’. That went on all through February 2020.

Anyway I bought a ticket to Hawaii got a hotel room for my last night in Seattle then I thought about it. If this shit is real and I’m from Kirkland and I’m about to go visit my elderly parents coming from the only US plague Zone to Hawaii?! No wayz Bah! I decided that’s just not good. Never got a refund either from Delta.

I ended up living in my car for almost 3 months and basically found myself homeless in the cold late winter in Plague City USA. As a middle aged diabetic, I’m in that category of high risk. I was sweating believe me! Later I read up on the long term side effects of insulin use. It turns out that they are a near match to Covid symptoms. That was a definite ‘Aha’ moment. Bastards!

All other Americans and Indians Pakistanis etc were at that time, merely remote viewing while I was effin homeless as the ‘pandemic’ unfolded around me.

I still had my job and honestly almost lost my mind and my job over my refusal to enter any hospital and forcing their employees to meet with me outside.

I also felt it was my social responsibility to be tested because I was going through a lot of public places, hospitals, offices and meeting with a lot of people. So I called the King county coronavirus hotline to get a Covid test. I told them my circumstances and they straight up told me ‘even though you’re at high risk, you don’t seem to have any of the known symptoms so don’t take the test.’

I was startled and I also noticed the ladies voice was almost like she was hinting something between the lines and she kept saying no don’t take the test, don’t take the test! I again pointed out that my work demands that I interact with a lot of people  so I feel it’s correct and proper I be tested. She replied,”I really don’t advise it. But here’s the address near you.’

I at the time was trusting that they know best, so I followed her recommendations. I thus never took the test until Dec 2020 so I could fly outta Pakistan.

So I don’t want to hear any judgmental bullshit that I’m irresponsible, uncaring and selfish. I effin did my duty and fulfilled my social responsibility.

These were shitty times indeed. Then I found that empty Corona Facility and I was pissed. Then I noticed the hospital signs barring entry to anyone with the ‘following symptoms’. It basically listed every common pain disorder on the planet.

I looked at the front desk Nurse laughed saying, ‘not sure how anyone made it in here with that list of every symptom known to man.’

Then the repeated assertions by the mainstream press and ‘experts’ admitting that they know very little about this new disease yet they are so certain at the same time. O and the Mexican baby born with Covid supposedly from a Covid free Mom??!  What an insult to our intelligence!

Dont talk science and tell me that is possible. The tests are as far from science as Pluto the Dog is from Pluto the planet!

And the Covid propoganda spewed out with this fear mongering theory presented as proven science! Now every time I use a toilet I always get triggered remembering all those proclamations that toilet flushing is dangerous because it blows coronavirus everywhere. These guys are pathetic! Such an insult to my intelligence!

That is when I then began enjoying the empty City streets. The fear and panic had emptied all the shops yet no regulations were in place, so I felt like one of the last people on Earth in a way, getting VIP treatment just for being one of the few they interacted with. I also ended up getting all the best assignments because everyone else was too afraid. I’m like “Hallelujah and Pass the Ammunition! Yippee kai yay!”

American Indian Finds his Indian Heart / Re: American Cobra

Note: Charlie Lame Deer wrote this article for the UK based Hindu Today Magazine May 2013 Edition. As Editor, I edited and designed the article and added the pictures, once approved by Charlie. Full article below

Charlie’s Grandfather John Fire Lame Deer is the author of several books including ‘Lame Deer, SEEKER of Visions’ ‘Lame Deer Speaks’ and “Lame Deer – Sioux medicine man” See full bio at end of article


By Charlie CetanWi Lame Deer

As I research Hinduism and East Indian culture am finding many startling similarities between the “Lakota” people and the Tamil People of South India. For example the aarti and puja offerings-Aarti in in my language means to build an elevated place to pray and Puja means ‘thirst. and pujapi means ‘they thirst. It is the ceremony of the pouring, offering and worship of the water-Maka We Le-Blood of the Mother or Earth Mother.

The Great Serpent Mound is the largest serpent effigy in the world. It is 1,348-foot-long (411 m),three-foot-high prehistoric effigy mound on a plateau of the Serpent Mound crater in Adams County, Ohio, USA

Maka means Mother and it is the same word Mata for linguistically the letters ‘k’ and ‘t are interchangable. The Kentucky region of the USA is home to my ancestors and the mound where I live is the spring solstice wing of the Sacred Serpent Uncakila. Today by the will of the cre ator there is a Hindu temple in Louisville, Kentucky; it is a Vishnu -Shiva temple. Unknown to most is that it has been built on what was once a Native American temple mound of the Mandan Indian People. Surely it is not first time Vishnu or Shiva have been worshiped on that spot.

Left: John Fire Lame Deer and the Sacred Pipe Ceremony
Charlie’s Grandfather John Fire Lame Deer

Charlie Lame Deer’s Grandfather, John Fire Lame Deer was a Mineconju-Lakota Sioux born on the Rosebud Indian Reservation. His father was Silas Fire Let-Them-Have-Enough. His mother was Sally Red Blanket. He lived and learned with his grandparents until he was 6 or 7, after which he was placed in a day school near the family until age fourteen. He was then sent to a boarding school, one of many run by the U.S. Bureau of Indian Affairs for Indian youth. These schools werpe designed to “civilize” the Native Americans after their forced settling on reservations.


Lame Deer’s life as a young man was rough and wild; he traveled and rode the rodeo circuit as a rider and later as a rodeo clown. According to his personal account, he drank, gambled, womanized, and once went on a several day long car theft and drinking binge. Eventually, he happened upon the house where the original peace pipe given to the Lakota by White Buffalo Calf Woman was kept; much to his surprise, the keeper of the pipe told Lame Deer she had been waiting for him for some time. This served as a turning point in Lame Deer’s life. He settled down and began his life as a wichasha wakan (“medicine man”, or more accurately, “holy man”).


Making his home at the Pine Ridge Reservation and traveling around the country, Lame Deer became known both among the Lakota and to the American public at a time when indigenous culture and spirituality were going through a period of rebirth and the psychedelic movement of the 1960s had yet to disintegrate. He often participated in American Indian Movement events, including sit-ins at the Black Hills, land legally belonging to the Lakota that had been taken back by the United States government after the discovery of gold. The Black Hills are considered to be the axis mundi or center of the world to the Lakota Indians.

Kumkuma/Vermillion Powder: Sacred Across the Ancient World

Note: I wrote this back in July 2009 after listening to a discussion by some prominent Archeologists. They were speaking on the ancient world’s use of Red Ochre, (Vermillion Cinnabar powder) in relation to Sacred Burials across the ancient world. Yet they admitted being clueless as to the cultural significance of Vermillion Powder. A brief scan of the role of Vermillion throughout history reveals that it has been considered sacred by all who use it. Was this merely based upon it’s obvious beauty? The evidence suggests something more. It is another clue highlighting an Ancient and Divine connectivity at work.

Skeleton of the Red Queen, coated in cinnabar, via Past Horizons. In the Tomb of the Red Queen in Palenque (600–700 AD), the remains of a noblewoman were covered with bright Vermilion. The walls of the tombs of Maya rulers were often painted with Vermillion Cinnabar

There is another fascinating link between India, Egypt, China and the Ancient Americans. It is Kum Kum or vermilion powder.

Archeologists are puzzled as to why many ancient tombs are drenched with Vermillion Powder. Whether it is in China, Peru, Mexico or Egypt, Vermilion/Kum Kum Powder was used.

The question asked is, “What significance did the red vermilion powder have to the ancient cultures around the world?”

Of course the western scholars have a lot of speculation to offer, but to my knowledge not once have any of these so-called experts publicly considered the fact that nearly a billion people are still using vermilion powder on a daily basis.

The Villa of the Mysteries in Pompeii was a showcase for the expensive vermilion pigment made from ground cinnabar. This was a Sacred place for the initiation of young women into a Greco-Roman mystery cult.  Vermillion has a sacred connotation everywhere it is used in the ancient world.

Just perhaps these billion people might have some information as to the significance of Kum Kum Powder in the current era and by tracing its use we may come to the obvious conclusion that India’s Modern Hindu Civilization is the only civilization that has maintained an unbroken link with the ancient world.

This fact, once accepted, will allow the world’s academia to begin to come up with accurate theories that actually make sense and can be easily verified by the ongoing practical and applicable realities of everyday life. In other words, an ancient potters wheel has the same use as a modern one, and it is easy to deduce its applicable usefulness even thousands of years later. The same method can be applied to Kum Kum.

Archeologists are puzzled as to why many ancient tombs are drenched with Vermillion Powder. Whether its in China, Chile, Mexico, Rome or Egypt Vermilion/Kum Kum is used. If the archeologists truly want to know why the ancient Chinese, Egyptians, Europeans and Americans used vermilion powder, perhaps they can ask the Modern Hindus of India. Its only logical to learn from the people who have used it for thousands of years and continue to use it to this very day.
Funerary Mask A.D. 900–1100. Peru. Gold, silver-copper overlays with cinnabar. The Met Museum of Art, NYC

I am truly amazed at the value given to the many ignorant theories about India that have been created without any input of those living the culture. Prejudiced theories can surely have no more value than the holistic theories that take into account the traditional versions of a culture along with modern scientific research techniques. Only when these two are united can we ever cross over the tyranny of of politicized academia.

  • In the Bible vermilion is listed as a pigment that was in use for painting buildings during the reign of Shallum the son of Josiah king of Judah and is named in the book of the prophet Ezekiel as a pigment used in art that portrayed Chaldean men. (Jeremiah 22:11–14, Ezekiel 23:14–17)
  • The Vermilion rose is a symbol of the Blessed Virgin Mary.

“Research shows it has been used at various times and places to denote blood, victory, success, the duality of life and death, and immortality. For example, the pigment was used during triumphal processions by Romans. It was also applied to skulls and bones as part of burial rituals in neolithic cultures in Anatolia, China, Galilee, Spain, and Syria, and in many cultures of the ancient Americas.” The Story of Cinnabar and Vermilion (HgS) at The Met Typically India and Hinduism are not mentioned once despite being the only living culture that actually still uses Vermillion Powder.

Vermilion columns in the throne room in the Palace of Heavenly Purity in the Forbidden City of Beijing

The main gate of the Shaolin Monastery in Dengfeng, Henan is painted vermilion or Chinese red.

Mask & Skeleton of the Red Queen, coated in Vermillion

Two female mummies dated A.D. 1399 to 1475 found in Cerro Esmeralda in Chile in 1976 had clothes colored with cinnabar. Researchers still do not know the source of the cinnabar. Yet it was so valued that it was imported to Chile for the ceremony. Source

The first documented use of cinnabar or vermilion pigment was found at the neolithic village of Çatalhöyük in modern-day Turkey. This mural, from 7000–8000 BC, shows aurochs, a deer and humans. (Museum of Anatolian Civilizations, Ankara)

Ancient Chinese Sanskrit Philosophical Manuscript Confirms Indus Script Relation to Sanskrit

The Spitzer Manuscript is dated to about the 2nd-century CE (above: folio 383 fragment). Discovered near the northern branch of the Central Asian Silk Route in NW China. It is the 2nd oldest Sanskrit philosophical manuscript known. It is also the 2nd oldest Sanskrit manuscript of any type related to Buddhism & Hinduism discovered anywhere in the world so far.

By Dr. Kalyanraman

The Spitzer Manuscript shows how Brahmi ka- is derived from Indus Script karṇaka ‘rim of jar

Thanks to Maanasa Taramgani for providing excerpts from the Spitzer Manuscript. This monograph demonstrates that Brahmi ka- symbol is derived from Indus Script cipher for

 karṇaka, ‘rim of jar’.

 The vikr̥ti-s of ka- include the following:

I suggest the common orthographic elements to signify ka- are derived from the word karṇaka ‘rim-of-jar’ The expression karṇaka is used in Indus Script with the hieroglyph of ‘rim-of-jar’ which has variants as follows in Indus Script Corpora to signify the rebus rendering of . karṇika ‘scribe’. The orthographic emphasis is on the two short splinter strokes on either side of the narrow-necked jarto signify

The rim of handle of the jar. These handles on either side of the karṇaka are clearly signified in the Spitzer manuscript with orthographic variants. The focus is on two splinter marks horizontally drawn on either side of the

koda ‘one’ (long linear stroke) rebus: kod ‘workshop’.

Thus, the Brahmi symbol वि-कृति ‘f. change , alteration , modification , variation , changed condition (of body or mind ; acc. with √ गम् , या , व्रज् , or प्र- √पद् , to undergo a change , be changed) MBh. Ka1v. &c‘ for the alphabet ka- is derived from karṇaka, the most frequently used expression in Indus Script Corpora. Read Full Study Here


“Buddhist scribes”,. Monastery of Karashahr. China.

The highly fragmented material of the Spitzer Manuscript was discovered in 1906 by a German expedition team. It was headed by Indologist Dr. Moritz Spitzer. The material was found in Qizil, China (Central Asia) which falls on the ancient silk route. The material is currently preserved in the Berlin State library.

The work is unique in that no parallel work has ever been found related to it and also the text has not been transmitted to China/Tibet/Japan through translations like most other early Buddhist texts do. This ancient manuscript was written with a broad-nib copper pen in Kuṣāṇa-Brāhmã script.

The manuscript fragments are actually copies of a collection of older Buddhist and Hindu treatises. Sections of Buddhist treatises constitute the largest part of the Spitzer Manuscript. They include verses on a number of Buddhist philosophies and a debate on the nature of Dukkha and the Four Noble Truths. The Hindu portions include treatises from the NyayaVaiśeṣika, Tarkasatra (treatise on rhetoric and proper means to debate) and one of the earliest dateable table of content sequentially listing the parva (books) of the Mahabharata, along with numerals after each parva. The Spitzer Manuscript


In confirmation of the ancient global presence of Sanskrit, the worlds two most ancient Sanskrit texts were both found beyond the borders of India. The world’s oldest known Sanskrit texts were found in Afghanistan. The world’s second most ancient Sanskrit texts were found in Qizil, Central Asia, along China’s Silk Road


The Spitzer Manuscript – consisting of a collection of treatises – is not the oldest known manuscript of ancient India, however. The oldest known Indian – and the oldest known Buddhist manuscripts in the world – so far are dated between 100 BCE and 30 CE. These were discovered in the caves of eastern Afghanistan (ancient Gandhara) in the early 1990s. They were acquired by the British Library and preserved there since 1994.

This collection includes birch bark scrolls and palm-leaf manuscripts. They are under study by groups in Japan, Germany and the USA (led by Richard Salomon). More have been acquired in the 2000s and 2010s, with some pothis (manuscripts) now a part of the Schøyen Collection and the Robert Senior Collection.

Some of these recently discovered manuscripts in the British Library have been examined, of which a few dated between 1st-century BCE and early 1st-century CE, by techniques such as paleography, names mentioned in the text, other internal evidence, and Carbon-14 dating. The oldest manuscripts are in Gandhari language (a Prakrit language, a daughter of Sanskrit, some features resemble Pali but Gandhari is different in many ways).[4][5][6]


The Spitzer Manuscript

The Oldest Philosophical Manuscript in Sanskrit

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The Spitzer Manuscript is one of the oldest Sanskrit manuscripts found on the Silk Road. The work preserved in it is unique; no further manuscripts of it have been discovered so far, nor is it transmitted in Tibetan or Chinese translations.

The present volume contains an introduction which summarizes previous research and discusses grammatical, lexical and palaeographical aspects of the work, together with an outline of its content. It is followed by a complete facsimile edition of the fragments accompanied by transliterations. These are supplemented by transcriptions of some fragments which are no longer available, recovered from the estate of the Indologist Dr. Moritz Spitzer.

A concordance juxtaposes the earlier and present-day arrangements of the fragments, and an extensive character table documents the peculiarities of the Kuṣāṇa-Brāhmã script used in the manuscript. A complete word index and a study which aims at reconstructing the last part of the manuscript conclude the volume.

As well as Buddhist scholastics the work also deals with a number of non-Buddhist topics, such as a theory of Vaiśeṣika qualities completely unknown from other sources it contains, inter alia, the oldest list of books of the Mahābhārata and an enumeration of the sixty-four arts and sciences. The last part of the work is devoted to dialectics